I. David Renews His Faith In God Vs. 1-5
A. David Repented From Trying To Save Himself V. 1a
22 David therefore departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam.
1. In 1 Samuel 21, we saw David reacting in fear to the death threats from Saul.
a. He went to the priest Ahimelech and lied to him about being on a task for Saul.
b. Ahimelech innocently helped him, gave him bread, and Goliath’s sword.
c. This would ultimately lead to Ahimelech’s death from Saul.
d. 1 Samuel 21 shows David acting in fear, but chapter 22 shows him acting in faith.
2. In chapter 21, David had run to Gath, Goliath’s hometown, and sought refuge there.
a. King Achish and the Philistines realized that David could be a danger to them.
b. David had killed many Philistines, including Goliath.
c. David feigned insanity, salivated on his beard, and clawed at the gates of the city.
d. Eventually, David came to his senses, escaped Gath, and went to the cave at Adullam.
3. V. 1a In humility, he didn’t flee to man for help, but he fled to God.
a. Adullam is about 10 miles from Gath. He went alone into a cave and cries out to God.
b. He has his priorities right again. He was not going to man for help but going to God.
c. In that cave, David wrote Psalm 142. See Psalm 142.
d. God is humbling David and showing him that he needs to humbly depend on God.
e. This shows us that God’s people sometimes falter in where they turn for help.
f. It also shows us God’s mercy & grace; we can come back to God, our source of help.
g. David received help from God, and went go on to become Israel’s greatest king.
B. Our Faith Inspires Others To Walk In Faith Vs. 1b, 2
1. V. 1b, 2 David’s life had inspired others to follow him. There were many who struggled.
a. Distress-stress, anguish. People who are so desperate that they will do anything.
b. Debt-they owed debts. A person in debt is in need of forgiveness.
c. Discontented– bitterness of soul, a compound word.
d. These men were in anguish and bitterness of soul when they came to David.
e. Some were blood relatives. Others could no longer stand to live under Saul’s reign.
2. NOTE-There are some within the Body of Christ who are always discontented and are never satisfied living under the leadership of anyone.
a. At times, their complaints may be valid. They may have legitimate concerns.
b. At other times, their complaints are petty and self-focused.
c. They complain about the church but won’t commit to any church.
d. David’s group was not like this. They were unwilling to live under Saul’s corrupt leadership. They did not want to submit to the king that God had rejected.
e. But these were men who were willing to submit to God’s choice of King.
f. These men came to David distressed and discontent, but they didn’t stay that way.
g. They allowed themselves to be transformed by God and through David’s leadership. Verse 2 says that… “he became captain over them”.
h. They willingly submitted themselves to God’s choice for King.
i. They became David’s Mighty Men. (1 Chronicles 11:10; 12:16-18)
C. David was Responsible And Submissive Vs. 3-5
1. Vs. 3, 4 As David returned to a life of faith in God, and repented from being driven by fear, he also returned to being responsible for his family.
a. It seems that sometimes when people are coming back from a difficult season of life where their faith faltered, they still remain very self-focused. David didn’t do that.
b. 1 Timothy 5:8 But if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially for those of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.
2. V. 5 David was willing to receive godly counsel. He was living in humility again.
a. David was no longer leaning on his own understanding. (Proverbs 3:5, 6)
b. When we return to a life of faith, we are willing to submit to godly counsel.
c. This counsel was challenging. Gad told David to go back to Judah, where Saul was.
d. Guzik-David had to learn to trust God in the midst of danger, not on the other side of danger.
II. The Consequences Of David’s Former Lack Of Faith Vs. 6-
A. Repentance Doesn’t Make Problems Disappear Vs. 6-8
1. Vs. 6, 7 The news about David being back in the area was made known to Saul.
a. Though David had recommitted himself to God, Saul’s hatred hadn’t disappeared.
b. We see Saul once again with a spear in his hand, ready to kill any opponent.
c. Saul is trying to promote himself and turn people against David.
d. NOTE-It is good to turn back to God in faith, but that doesn’t life is all OK.
e. NOTE-Repentance is about us doing the right thing, not about changing the situation.
2. V. 8 Desperate leaders and desperate people will believe that everyone is against them.
a. 8x’s in this verse, Saul talks about himself.
B. The Consequences Of David’s Previous Sin Vs. 9-19
1. Vs. 9, 10 Undoubtedly, Doeg is seeking to gain favor with Saul.
a. Doeg was present when David visited Ahimelech the priest.
b. He presumed that Ahimelech had conspired with David to assist him secretly.
c. This wasn’t true, but it looked that way.
d. David had lied to Ahimelech, and in the end, Ahimelech looked guilty. David’s fault.
2. Vs. 11-13 Saul has not taken the time to confirm Doeg’s story.
a. He has listened to one man’s account and has presumed that he was telling the truth.
b. Saul has backslidden from the Lord. He has been self-serving and is now willing to believe anything that seems to come against him.
c. Proverbs 17:4 An evildoer gives heed to false lips; A liar listens eagerly to a spiteful tongue.
d. Proverbs 18:13 He who answers a matter before he hears it, It is folly and shame to him.
e. Proverbs 25:2 It is the glory of God to conceal a matter, But the glory of kings is to search out a matter.
3. Vs. 14, 15 Ahimelech speaks with a clear conscience. He defends David’s honor and reputation. Ahimelech speaks of his own innocence. Saul considered himself a victim.
a. Doeg presented the story in a way that incriminated Ahimelech, who was innocent.
4. V. 16 Saul was not looking for an explanation of the situation.
a. He asked the question but had already made up his mind.
b. Proverbs 18:8 The words of a talebearer are like tasty trifles, and they go down into the inmost body.
c. Doeg’s words were what Saul wanted to hear. Saul wasn’t interested in the truth.
5. V. 17 These Jewish men had integrity and knew this was wrong and a sin.
6. V. 18 Doeg had no conscience towards these Jewish Priests. Saul didn’t have the courage to do it himself. Saul was reluctant to kill God’s enemies, the Amalekites. Now he is swift to order the execution of God’s innocent priests.
7. V. 19 David’s lapse of faith and subsequent lies were costly to many innocent people.
C. David Stays Steady In His Faith Vs. 20-23
1. David humbly owns up to his sin of fear, lying, and deception.
2. He admits that his sins caused the deaths of many innocent people.
3. This typified David’s life. David always repented. Saul never repented.
4. Though he was very sinful at times, when the evidence was clearly brought before him, he admitted his sins and confessed them before God and man.