I. Hannah’s Prayer Vs. 1-11

A. Hannah’s Thanksgiving & Praise Vs. 1, 2

1. These words of praise came after Hannah was barren for years.

a. She had suffered mocking by Elkanah’s other wife Penninah.

b. Yet Hannah stayed faithful, she worshipped God, and was blessed with a child.

c. She dedicated her child back to the service of God.

d. If she would have allowed her heartache to keep her from seeking God, she never would have had this child. We need to seek God even in our bitterness of soul.

2. V. 1 The object of Hannah’s praise was God, not her son.

a. Horn – my power is great in the Lord. Horns-power, i.e. bull’s horns.

b. Salvation-deliverance welfare, prosperity, victory.

c. The deep desire of her heart was granted, but her focus was still on God.

B. Warning To The Proud V. 3

1. This statement was likely directed to Penninah, the other wife who mocked Hannah.

2. Penninah had many children, and she was proud as a result. Hannah rebuked her.

3. How foolish for Penninah to be proud about a natural gift that God had given her.

4. 1 Peter 5b, 6 “God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.” 6 Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time, 7 casting all your care upon Him, for He cares for you.

5. Hannah is a beautiful example how God gives grace to the humble.

C. The Strong And The Weak Vs. 4-8a

1. ¬¬Hannah commented on how quickly things can change for the weak or the strong.

2. No one should have arrogance in their blessings, or hopelessness in their difficulties.

D. Hannah’s Confidence In The Future Vs. 8b-11

1. Hannah had great confidence in the future judgment of God.

a. V. 10 Anointed- mashiyach – anointed, anointed one; of the Messiah

b. First time the word mashiyach occurs in a place where it can refer to the Messiah.

c. King-anointed – There was no king in Israel. Hannah was speaking prophetically.

d. Not just about the kings like Saul & David, but even in looking to Jesus.

2. V. 11 NLT- the child grew up in the presence of the Lord. Samuel helped Eli serve God.

II. The Wicked Sons of Eli Vs. 12-17

A. The Sin Of Greed Vs. 12-17

1. V. 12 The priesthood was passed on from father to son.

a. Eli passed on the position of priest, but he didn’t teach his sons the ways of God.

b. It is amazing that many people in the ministry do not know the ways of God.

2. Vs. 13-17 God had made provision for the priests to live off of the offerings brought by the people, but their portion was specified by God. (See Leviticus 3:12-17; 7:28-34)

a. Instead of obeying God’s commands, they developed their own custom for this.

b. The fat of the animal was considered the best part, and it was reserved for God.

c. They forced their servants to get larger and forbidden portions for them.

d. V. 17 The result was that people didn’t want to bring their sacrifices to God.

e. Corrupt ministers create an environment that is undesirable for God’s people.

f. Instead-1 Peter 5:2 Shepherd the flock of God which is among you, serving as overseers, not by compulsion but willingly, not for dishonest gain but eagerly…

g. For extra credit, read Ezekiel 34 regarding God’s expectations of spiritual leaders.

B. The Sin Of Sexual Immorality Vs. 22-24

1. V. 22 These were women who served the Lord in general duties at the tabernacle.

2. Luke 2:36, 37 Now there was one, Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity; 37and this woman was a widow of about eighty-four years, who did not depart from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.

a. The sons of Eli committed fornication with these women who served God.

b. There was no fear of God in the hearts of these men.

c. Proverbs 16:6 And by the fear of the LORD one departs from evil.

3. Vs. 23, 24 The priests were making the people sin. They were supposed to help the people bring offerings for their sins, but instead led them into sin. They drove them away.

C. Eli’s Failure To Correct His Sons V. 25

1. V. 25 Eli rebuked them but never took strong enough action to stop what they were doing. His words were right, but he should have removed his sons from the priesthood.

2. V. 25 It is always bad when a man sins against another. But it is worse when one sins directly against the Lord, especially in the ministry. The Lord desired to kill them.

III. Samuel’s Childhood Ministry Vs. 18-21, 26

A. Samuel’s Involvement At The Tabernacle V. 18

1. V. 18 The linen ephod shows that Samuel was being prepared for the priesthood.

2. Samuel was probably in the elementary school age group, and yet her served God.

3. Children can serve God from a very young age, if they have the understanding.

B. Samuel’s Parents Vs. 19-21

1. God greatly blessed Hannah and Elkanah for their gift of Samuel to the Lord.

2. These godly parents continued to worship the Lord in a regular fashion.

3. Hannah brought new clothes for Samuel each year.

4. V. 26 Samuel was such contrast to the sons of Eli. He lived right before God.

IV. Prophecy Against Eli’s Household Vs. 26-36

A. Eli Was Reminded Of God’s Favor Upon Him Vs. 27-32

1. An unnamed prophet reminded Eli that God had chosen the line of Aaron to be priests.

2. He also reminded him that God had promised to provide them their livelihood.

3. Eli seems to have forgotten God’s grace upon his life, and the responsibility he had.

4. It seems that Eli had settled into a comfortable, self-focused existence in the priesthood.

5. Earlier in Israel’s history, Aaron’s two oldest sons were killed by God for their disobedience in bringing profane fire before the Lord. They were Nadab and Abihu.

6. The sons that remained were Eleazar and Ithamar. Eli was a descendant of Ithamar.

7. Because of the sins Eli and his sons, the family of Ithamar would no longer be allowed to be in the priesthood, and all the priestly duties would fall to the family of Eleazar.

8. The cutting off of Eli’s family from priesthood would happen under the reign of Solomon.

9. Under Solomon, the priesthood would stay only with the family of Eleazar.

10. V. 29 Eli honored his sons more than he honored God.

a. Even though Eli knew that his sons were wrong, and rebuked them for it, he was still willing to eat the meat that they took, and he made himself fat doing it. (Chapter 4:18)

b. How many pastors/fathers/leaders serve themselves instead of serving others?

c. How many fathers like being the head of the family in order to indulge themselves?

11. Vs. 30-32 God had desired to use their family line forever, but now changed his mind.

a. Eli and his son had dishonored God and corrupted the priestly service.

b. Instead of helping people draw near to God, they drove them away from God.

c. God informed Eli that his lineage would not continue. His family line would end.

B. God’s Judgment Upon Eli’s Sons Vs. 33-36

1. The position and privilege that should have been theirs was lost.

2. They lost their place of service because they were disobedient to God and self-serving.