I. How Young Children Live Vs. 1-3

A. Under The Authority Of Law Vs. 1, 2

1. Child- nepios- “one that does not speak”. One who is intellectually and morally immature.
2. Slave- doulos- a slave. The child was like a slave who had no authority to make decisions.
3. Master- kurios- the child would one day be a functioning master over the slave. Until then, he was under the slave.
4. Guardians- Over the child, there to restrain and protect him.
5. Stewards- Protected the estate, the future property of the child.
6. Under Roman law, the father would set a certain age when the son would be considered a man, and would be given the toga virilis, a sign of his transition into maturity.

B. Our Condition Prior To Salvation V. 3

1. Children- nepios. We were intellectually and morally immature, spiritually speaking.
2. in bondage under the elements of the world- under the elementary stages of the religious experience, whether under Jewish law or some moral system found in heathenism. The first principles used to direct and develop behavior. The A,B, C’s.

a. Romans 2:14, 15 14for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves, 15who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)
b. As a child needed a guardian to restrain him, so the Galatians had lived under some kind of basic religious experience. But as the guardian could not force the child to have a transformed heart, neither could religious law transform the heart of a person.

3. The person that desires to live under a law is compared to a child living under a guardian.
A child doesn’t have the capacity to make good internal, moral decisions. They need the guardian to tell them what to do and not do, to tell them if they have been good or bad.
4. Paul likens the guarded child unto a slave. See verse 7. No authority over himself. Subject to a governing person/list. Dependent on good behavior to feel approved of.
5. The Christian who desires to live under a strict set of rules puts himself into the category of being childish and immature. They look for someone else to tell them how to live; what to do or not do, etc. Rather than thinking things through and being moved internally, philosophically, and spiritually, they prefer to live by a set of rules.
6. Living by a list of religious rules does the following:

a. It takes away the thinking, feeling, reasoning aspect of living with God.
b. It can give a false sense of being right with God, or being wrong with God.
c. Emphasizes performance over relationship.
d. It causes one to force their list upon other people, and to want to judge their adherence.
e. It leads to more rule writing as one realizes their failures and the failures of others.
f. The rule keeper believes that more and better rules will lead to success, when in reality, it leads to more frustration. This will lead to blame shifting, denial, or condemnation.
g. Laws don’t work in leading to holiness or salvation. Read Colossians 2:20-23

II. God’s Remedy Vs. 4-7

A. Released From The Law

1. V. 4- Fullness of time- at a certain time.

a. Prophetically- Daniel predicted the coming of Messiah 483 years earlier. Many believe he predicted the Palm Sunday arrival of Jesus’ into Jerusalem.
b. Religiously- Israel, despite having had God’s word revealed to them, had failed miserably over the centuries, showing their need for a savior. The stage was set for them to be delivered from life under law, and into a life under grace.
c. Historically- Rome ruled the known world, and enforced peace. They developed a road system that allowed for easier travel by Christian missionaries. Greek was spoken commonly in the known world, and that made the propagation of the Gospel message easier.

2. V. 4- God sent forth His Son-to be sent off on a mission. The Father sent the Son.
born of a woman- Jesus was fully human.
born under the law- He kept the law perfectly, and gave his life for humanity who had broken the law of God. Jesus alone was able to offer Himself as a sinless sacrifice for the sins of sinful humanity.
3. V. 5-To redeem those under the law- not to redeem from the curse of the law (as in 3:13), but from having to live under the entire system of Law, whether of Mosaic law, or of the law of God written on every human heart. (Romans 2:14, 15)
4. Paul addresses to aspects of what Jesus accomplished.

a. Redemption From The Law
The emphasis of this passage speaks about how a person lives.
Do they live as a child, or as a slave, having someone tell them what to do, and having no freedom of choice?
Or do they live as an adult child, in voluntary relationship with their Father?
b. Adoption As Sons
This speaks of the child who has grown into maturity, and is given the toga virilis.
He has moved from living under the stern eye of a guardian, and now makes decisions according to his free will and sense of morality and spirituality.
This means that the child was a full-fledged family member, and a participant in all family affairs.

B. Sonship Granted Vs. 6, 7

1. Vs. 6, 7– In these verses, we see the presentation of the work of the Triune Godhead.
The indwelling Holy Spirit that bears witness within a person’s soul regarding Sonship.

a. The child with a guardian needed to look outside of himself to see how he was doing with life. Had he obeyed the rules and obeyed the guardian?
b. The slave could be sold at any time. He needed to obey to secure his position within a family, and to avoid punishment or even death.
c. The adult child knew that he had outgrown all this, and that he was in no way a second class family member. The slave on occasion would be set free.

2. The child of God has been given the Holy Spirit to bear witness of their relationship to God that isn’t established on perfect obedience, but upon adoption. Romans 8:15-17